I have a feeling that the problem isn’t just about drinks after work. You are newly married. You left your home country and you are trying to adjust to his. Your own network of friends and family is far away. Maybe you are trying to manage in a language other than your own as well. It’s a lot to handle. It makes sense to me that you may want more time and attention from your husband and that maybe you are a bit clingy.
You are right that forbidding him to see his colleagues is a mistake. Continuing to fight about his after-work activities is only going to make him resentful. I think you are getting more and more upset because you two are not talking about the more important issues that are underneath the main problem.
I suggest you sit down with your husband and tell him how much he means to you. Share with him how hard it is to adjust to a new country with new customs that are so different from your own. Let him know that you are not really a jealous person. But right now you need him more than maybe either of you would like. Ask for his help in finding other couples and friends you can both hang out with so you don’t feel so left out and alone.
I hope you can get on the same team and deal with the importance of having a circle of friends that you can both enjoy – together and on your own. If you do it well, you will both feel better. You won’t feel so threatened. He won’t feel like you are constantly checking up on him.
I wish you well.