Neuropsychology and Neurology News

Brain Uses Decision-Making Time to Create Confidence Rating

December 21st, 2014
When you need to make a choice but lack sufficient evidence for a solid decision, your brain calculates how much time has elapsed to give you a confidence rating of sorts, says a team of neuroscientists at New York University (NYU). Their ...

Brain Imaging Shows Overactive Habit System in OCD

December 20th, 2014
A new study has found that misfiring of the brain’s habit control system may be behind the compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The study, led by Dr. Claire Gillan and Professor Trevor Robbins of the Department of Psychology at the University of Cambridge, ...

Fine Particle Air Pollutants Linked to Autism

December 19th, 2014
New research suggests that women exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter air pollution during pregnancy may experience double the risk of having a child with autism. Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) says the risk is greatest when the exposure occurs ...

Why Antidepressants May Worsen Symptoms Before Kicking In

December 18th, 2014
Emerging research helps explain the delayed, even paradoxical effect of certain antidepressants. Clinicians have known that some medications may actually worsen symptoms before helping patients feel better. The new findings, publishing online in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences, may eventually help investigators fix ...

Learning In Infancy Reaps Long-Term Benefits

December 17th, 2014
Developmental psychologists believe that talking to babies in their first year can provide learning benefits that are seen as much as five years later. Experts say the benefits are particularly associated with naming things in the infant’s world, as this can help the ...

Hepatitis C Ruled Out as Cause of Mental Impairment for Those With HIV

December 15th, 2014
Treatment advances for immunodeficiency virus (HIV) now allow people with the condition to live long and productive lives. As they age, however, many experience impaired thinking, memory loss, mood swings and other evidence of impaired mental function. Scientists are puzzled over why these changes ...

Prenatal Exposure to Household Chemicals May Reduce Kids’ IQ

December 15th, 2014
A new study finds that children exposed during pregnancy to elevated levels of two common household chemicals had a significantly lower IQ score than children exposed at lower levels. The chemicals, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) are found in a wide ...

Poor Sleep Tied to Dementia Changes

December 14th, 2014
A new study has found that people who have sleep apnea or spend less time in deep sleep may be more likely to have changes in the brain associated with dementia. According to the study’s findings, people who don't have as much oxygen ...

Youngest Bone Marrow Transplant Patients at Highest Risk of Cognitive Decline

December 14th, 2014
Toddlers who undergo total body irradiation in preparation for a bone marrow transplant are at higher risk for a decline in IQ, according to a new study. Researchers at  St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital tracked the IQ scores of 170 St. Jude patients ...

Obese Kids’ Brains Respond More to Sugar

December 14th, 2014
A new study has discovered that the brains of obese children literally light up differently when tasting sugar. The study, led by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, does not show a causal relationship between sugar hypersensitivity and ...