Routine HIV testing widely supported in Botswana
Routine HIV testing widely supported in Botswana
Sheri Weiser and colleagues from University of California, San Francisco, studied responses to routine HIV testing in Botswana. In this population, where 37% of adults are positive for HIV, a cross-sectional study of 1,268 adults from five districts showed that routine HIV testing appears to be widely supported and may reduce barriers to HIV testing. However, the authors caution that as such programmes are implemented it will be important to put in place "true informed consent and human rights safeguards, including protection from HIV-related discrimination and protection of women against partner violence related to testing."
Citation: Weiser SD, Heisler M, Leiter K, Percy-de Korte F, Tlou S, et al. (2006) Routine HIV testing in Botswana: A population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns. PLoS Med 3(7): e261.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030261
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University of California, San Francisco
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies
931 Stanyan Street
San Francisco, CA 94117-3806 United States of America
THE FOLLOWING RESEARCH ARTICLES WILL ALSO BE PUBLISHED ONLINE:
Antibodies proposed for trial of mother to child transmission of HIV only partly effective
A Phase I clinical trial has been proposed that uses neutralising monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) as passive immunoprophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in South Africa, where HIV-1 subtype C infection predominates. Lynn Morris and colleagues from the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa assessed the activity of the antibodies against viruses from seven children with HIV-1 subtype C infection. They showed that of the four antibodies just one showed significant activity; two were ineffective and one was partly effective. The authors conclude: "we believe that the use of these MAbs to prevent MTCT of HIV-1 subtype C infection is unlikely to be efficacious; therefore, a clinical trial should not be conducted."
Citation: Gray ES, Meyers T, Gray G, Montefiori DC, Morris L (2006) Insensitivity of paediatric HIV-1 subtype C viruses to broadly neutralising monoclonal antibodies raised against subtype B. PLoS Med 3(7): e255.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030255
PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-03-07-morris.pdf
National Institute for Communicable Diseases
AIDS Research Unit
+2711 386 6332
Pathogenic mutation described in patents with myelofibrosis
Ross Levine and colleagues from Harvard Medical School describe a new mutation-- MPLW515L--in the thrombopoietin receptor (also called MPL) in 4 patients with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF), and who had been shown to lack another known pathogenic mutation--JAK2V617F . MF is one of a group of chronic blood disorders, known as chronic myeloproliferative disorders, which sometimes turn into acute leukemia. In myelofibrosis the bone marrow becomes filled with fibrous (scar) tissue which stops it from producing normal blood cells efficiently. The researchers investigated the role of the new mutation in a mouse model of the disease, and showed that it appears to activate a signaling pathway--the JAK-STAT pathway--within cells that is important in the development of myelofibrosis in these animals. They conclude that "Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF"
Citation: Pikman Y, Lee BH, Mercher T, McDowell E, Ebert BL, et al. (2006) MPLW515L is a novel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. PLoS Med 3(7): e270.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030270
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Brigham and Women's Hospital
75 Francis Street
Boston, MA 02115 United States of America
Mouse model of lymphedema
Acquired lymphedema is a common, important, and often devastating result of successful surgical and adjuvant therapy of breast cancer and other malignancies. Stanley Rockson and colleagues from Stanford University School of Medicine describe the characteristics of a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema that closely simulates the characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and which may be useful in developing and testing future treatments for lymphedema.
Citation: Tabibiazar R, Cheung L, Han J, Swanson J, Beilhack A, et al. (2006) Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency. PLoS Med 3(7): e254.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030254
PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-03-07-rockson.pdf
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
Falk Cardiovascular Research Center
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, California 94305 United States of America
+1 650 725 7571
+1 650 725 1599 (fax)
Aberrant receptor-mediated endocytosis of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins on host lipoproteins
The finding that GPI-anchored schistosome proteins are transferred from the parasite surface to human lipoproteins may explain how the parasites interfere with an effective immune response.
Citation: Sprong H, Suchanek M, van Dijk SM, van Remoortere A, Klumperman J, et al. (2006) Aberrant receptor-mediated endocytosis of Schistosoma mansoni glycoproteins on host lipoproteins. PLoS Med 3(8): e253.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030253
PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE:http://www.plos.org/press/plme-03-08-thiele.pdf
Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
+49 351 2101210
Core verbal autopsy procedures with comparative validation results from two countries
A procedure for recording verbal autopsy information was tested in two countries and found to be capable of providing reasonable mortality data. The need to undertake validation studies was also demonstrated.
Citation: Setel PW, Rao C, Hemed Y, Whiting DR, Yang G, et al. (2006) Core verbal autopsy procedures with comparative validation results from two countries. PLoS Med 3(8): e268.
PLEASE ADD THE LINK TO THE PUBLISHED ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030268
PRESS-ONLY PREVIEW OF THE ARTICLE: http://www.plos.org/press/plme-03-08-setel.pdf
MEASURE Evaluation, CPC
Epidemiolgy, UNC Chapel Hill
206 W Franklin St
Chapel Hill, NC 27516 United States of America
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