Treatment for anorexia nervosa appears to have improved outcome
Treatment for anorexia nervosa appears to have improved outcome in terms of recovery and fertility and reduced the usual long-term excessive mortalityA series of papers published today in European Eating Disorders Review finds:
- a peak season of birth in March/April among people with anorexia
- although there are similarities, there are also differences, between anorexia in males and females.
The lead researcher, Prof. Arthur Crisp, argues in defence of the concept that anorexia nervosa is rooted in a biologically based avoidance behaviour, driven by a phobia of normal adult body weight.
The seven papers, previously unpublished, derive from data collected between 1960-1995 by Prof. Crisp and a team of researchers based first at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School and subsequently at St. George's Hospital Medical School in London.
Anorexia and season of birth
Information about the first 980 patients on the St. George's database was compared with that on season of births in the general population. The population of anorectics born before 1964 showed a trough in their season of birth in February, and peaks in March/April and October. There was a similar peak for those born in 1964 and after.
One factor – the presence of maternal preoccupation and body weight and shape, and maintaining it at normal levels - was found to be significantly associated with this peak in births. A background of severe/moderate anorexia in the mother was also important.
Anorexia in males and females
751 females and 62 males with anorexia were studied. Compared with the general population, there was a much greater likelihood of anorexia in the mothers of both males and females with anorexia. Onset of illness was later in males, and earlier in non-White females, reflecting differences in growth rate and the close link between the disorder and puberty.
There were tendencies for laxative abuse to be more common among females, and for vegetarianism to be more common in males. A significant difference was found for males in veganism and alcohol abuse. Females were significantly more likely to hoard food.
Phobically driven avoidance of adult body weight
The majority of female teenagers want to weigh less than they do. By the age of 16, two-thirds of girls report feeling overweight, and have tried to diet. This can lead to wildly fluctuating daily calorie intake, which may spill over into 'dietary chaos' – including the extreme bingeing-vomiting pattern of bulimia nervosa.
In anorexia nervosa, however, there is sustained and severe calorie restriction. Prof. Crisp suggests that this single-minded rejection of food brings relief, in the absence of other psychological defences, from what has become overwhelming panic.
This panic results from problems experienced during the development of puberty, which have previously seemed insoluble. Only such panic-driven flight, he says, can overcome the powerful forces of natural growth that takes place in puberty.
He argues that anorexia nervosa is rooted in a biologically based avoidance behaviour driven by a phobia of normal body weight. The phobia, and its intensity, may be denied, but will be revealed if normal body weight is restored.
Without help, the avoidance behaviour may remain the only alternative to suicide. However, with treatment of the kind developed at St. George's Hospital** there is evidence that long term mortality from the condition is significantly reduced whilst full recovery is more common, including restored fecundity. Thus the population of about 70 recovered patients produced between them 115 healthy children.
* Provided during the period 1969-1995 at St George's Hospital.
** Patients at St. George's were assessed at four levels: behavioural, experiential, the 'no-longer existent maturational crisis', and individual and family psychological skills. A treatment programme tailor-made for each patient and family is then developed.
Notes to Editors:
1. Crisp, A et. al: Section 1: Seven Studies:
- Anorexia and Season of Birth
- Enduring Nature of Anorexia Nervosa
- Food Intake in Anorexia Nervosa: Patterns Reported over a 25 Year Period 1967 – 1992
- Body Mass Index at Last Menstrual Period in Anorexia Nervosa
- Anorexia Nervosa in Males: Similarities and Differences to Anorexia Nervosa in Females
- Death, Survival and Recovery in Anorexia Nervosa: A Thirty Five Year Study
- Vulnerability to Anorexia Nervosa: Constitutional Markers
2. Crisp, A et. al: Section2: In Defence of the Concept of Phobically Driven Avoidance of Adult Body Weight / Shape / Function as the Final Common Pathway to Anorexia Nervosa
3. European Eating Disorders Review is the Professional Journal of the Eating Disorders Association. European Eating Disorders Review publishes authoritative and accessible articles from all over the world, which review or report original research that has implications for the treatment and care of people with eating disorders and articles which report innovations and experience in the clinical management of eating disorders. The journal focuses on implications for best practice in diagnosis and treatment, (rather than on research methodology). The journal also provides a forum for discussion of the causes and prevention of eating disorders, and related health policy. The aims of the journal are to offer a channel of communication between researchers, practitioners, administrators and policymakers who need to report and understand developments in the field of eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review can be accessed at: www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/erv
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Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 21 Feb 2009
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