The study, featured in the May issue of Archives of Medical Research, suggests that pregnant women who are not anemic should take iron supplements weekly rather than daily. Women who are anemic have low levels of healthy red blood cells and need higher doses of iron supplementation. The study shows that pregnant women who are not anemic and follow the recommended daily dosage can suffer from iron overload and are more likely to experience birth complications.
Iron deficiency is common among women of childbearing age. Consequently, doctors have ordered daily supplements of 60 to 120 mg of iron to prevent or correct anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy. "What happens is that excess iron in pregnancy can drive the hemoglobin levels above desirable levels, so that by the end of the second trimester of pregnancy, 27 percent of the non-anemic women in our study had hemoglobin levels that were undesirably high," said Fernando Viteri, MD, Scientist at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI). "In these women, the risk of delivering premature babies or newborns with low birth weight quadrupled."
In contrast, only 7 percent of the women on weekly supplements developed high hemoglobin levels. The reason for the weekly dose – and in far smaller amounts – is biological and corresponds with the turnover of the intestinal lining, which renews itself every five to six days. The fresh cells are programmed to absorb iron according to the person's iron reserves and needs. The cells absorb more if reserves are depleted and less if they are adequate. Dr. Viteri's research concludes that iron supplementation is still beneficial, but must be regulated based on whether a woman is anemic.
About Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the largest pediatric critical care facility in the region. The hospital has 181 licensed beds and 166 hospital-based physicians in 31 specialties, more than two thousand five hundred employees, and an operating budget of $287 million. The hospital's research institute has an annual budget of $41 million with more than 300 basic and clinic investigators. Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) has made significant progress in areas including pediatric obesity, cancers, sickle cell disease, AIDS/HIV, hemophilia and cystic fibrosis.
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 21 Feb 2009
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