Over recent years scientists have found that many compounds in the environment mimic or interfere with oestrogen. These compounds are normally complex molecules and are found in many plants, and used in materials like detergents, pesticides and plastics. Now scientists are realising that a variety of simple metal ions, including aluminium and cadmium can also bind to the body's oestrogen-receptors and influence their action.
"Since oestrogen is known to be involved in the development and progression of human breast cancer, any components of the environment that have oestrogenic activity and which can enter the human breast could theoretically influence a woman's risk of breast cancer," says author of the review Dr Philippa Darbre, who works in the School of Biological Sciences, at the University of Reading, UK.
Aluminium salts in antiperspirants are a major source of exposure to aluminium in humans. It is often sprayed into armpits, inadvertently concentrating exposure near to the breast. In addition, it is often applied immediately after shaving, when the skin is likely to be damaged and less able to keep the aluminium out. "It is reasonable to question whether this aluminium could then influence breast cancer," says Darbre.
Her concern is not confined to aluminium. Smoking tobacco introduces cadmium into the body, and research shows that it too can collect in breast tissue. There are indications that this accumulation of cadmium may also be linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, potentially showing one of the reasons why smoking could be linked to this disease.
"Each of these agents on their own may not have a powerful effect, but we need to see what happens when a number of them act together – it could be that this would have a significant effect on diseases like breast cancer," says Darbre.
Article: Darbre P D. Metalloestrogens: An Emerging Class of Inorganic Xenoestrogens with Potential to Add to the Oestrogenic Burden of the Human Breast. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2006; DOI:10.1002/jat.1135
The Journal of Applied Toxicology is devoted to publishing original research, theoretical and literature reviews relating to the toxicity of drugs and chemicals to living systems at the molecular, cellular, tissue and target organ level. This also encompasses teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, mechanistic toxicology, pharmacokinetics, environmental toxicology and environmental health (including epidemiological studies) in addition to analytical and method development studies. Papers dealing with in vitro techniques and alternatives to the use of animals are encouraged. The journal's Editor-in-Chief is Dr Harry Salem of the Edgewood Chemical & Biological Center, USA, and Dr Philip Harvey of Covance Laboratories UK Ltd, Harrogate is its European Editor. The journal can be accessed online via Wiley Interscience at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/journal/jat.
About John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., provides must-have content and services to customers worldwide. Our core businesses include scientific, technical, and medical journals, encyclopedias, books, and online products and services; professional and consumer books and subscription services; and educational materials for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. Wiley has publishing, marketing, and distribution centers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols JWa and JWb. Wiley's Internet site can be accessed at http://www.wiley.com.
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 21 Feb 2009
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.