Environmental decontamination, greenhouse gases, and the genome of a methane-loving bacterium
Mention greenhouse gases to most people and they're apt to think of carbon dioxide, fossil fuels, and big cars. Though carbon dioxide emissions are the major source of greenhouse gases, methane is far more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere. Like increasing carbon dioxide levels, rising levels of atmospheric methane have been attributed to human activity, mostly in the form of landfills, natural gas and oil processing (about 60%), domesticated livestock (cattle account for about 75% of livestock contributions), and rice fields (up to 29% of total emissions).
Luckily, there are microbes, called methanotrophs, that consume methane. They've been found in soils, landfills, sediments, hotsprings, and peat bogs, among other environments. Methanotrophs have been the subject of increasing interest because they can use methane as a sole source of carbon and energy and could dramatically reduce biologically generated methane emissions. They've also been the focus of bioremediation efforts aimed at environmental decontamination. And now, with the publication of the first complete genome sequence of a methanotroph, such efforts will be all the easier. This week in PLoS Biology, a multidisciplinary team spanning the fields of genomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, evolutionary biology, and molecular biology report the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus and shed light on the metabolism and biology of this ubiquitous microbe.
The genome appears well-equipped to meet the specialized needs of this methanotroph. Ward et al. found evidence of "genomic redundancy" in methane oxidation pathways, suggesting that M. capsulatus employs different pathways depending on the availability of molecules needed to sustain cellular activities. Most surprising, the researchers note, was evidence that this methane specialist can turn into a sort of metabolic generalist-with a capacity to use sugars, hydrogen, and sulfur-and appears able to survive reduced oxygen levels.
The M. capsulatus genome provides a platform for investigating the details of methanotroph biology and its potential as a biotech workhorse. It may also guide efforts to harness this bacterium's penchant for methane to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons and other persistent pollutants, and to produce protein for animal feed.
Source: Eurekalert & othersLast reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 21 Feb 2009
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