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For Psychiatric Crises, Alternatives to ERs Have Their Advantages

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Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on January 15, 2014

Helping ERs Better Care for People in Crisis or with a Mental IllnessWhile many people in crisis or emotional distress turn to a hospital’s emergency room, most are ill-equipped to handle people with emotional wounds, rather than physical ones.

According to a new study, persons in a mental health crisis may be better served in an alternative recovery-oriented, homelike environment instead of a traditional emergency department.

The research team interviewed 18 participants who spent time at The Living Room, an outpatient, voluntary program for persons in emotional distress.

The program, in the Chicago suburb of Skokie, is staffed with a licensed professional counselor, registered nurse and trained peer counselors. Under the aegis of Turning Point Behavioral Health Care Center, a community mental health agency, it is in a space arranged and furnished like a living room in a person’s home, hence its name.

Those interviewed for the study included the professional clinical staff and peer counselors, as well as patients (referred to as “guests”) who were in a crisis, suffering from self-reported psychiatric diagnoses ranging from depression to Asperger’s syndrome.

“Participants in our study had experiences as either a person in emotional distress who went to an (emergency department) for help, or as a person who worked with persons in emotional distress in these settings,” the authors wrote.

“The experiences of (emergency departments) for persons in emotional distress were characterized by feelings of insecurity, loneliness, intimidation, fear, and discomfort,” the study noted. “Participants described feeling unsupported by (emergency department) staff.”

“Hospital emergency departments are not set up for people with emotional problems,” said researcher Mona Shattell, Ph.D., R.N., an associate professor of nursing in DePaul University’s College of Science and Health.

“Most people with emotional distress come from a chaotic environment and need a safe or calm space to receive proper attention and treatment. Most patients who came to The Living Room stayed for a few hours, received treatment or help, and left.

“What makes the space unique is that it is staffed with peer counselors who have experienced mental health issues and are specifically trained to treat the patients, who have responded well to that type of care because they see that recovery is possible,” said Shattell, who specializes in mental health and treatment environments.

According to the study’s findings, The Living Room helped people with emotional distress or mental illness address their crisis within the context of their life, which helped them utilize their own strengths by talking through problems, calming down and problem-solving to help their illness.

At The Living Room, guests reported being welcomed as “a fellow human being, not like a patient” and that the program was “a helping, not judging zone.”

Specific interventions by The Living Room staff were cited in the study as being identified by guests as “helpful and caring.” Those interventions included “being understanding, attentive and respectful, exploration of coping techniques, and use of a gentle, calming voice.”

One guest, according to the findings, “valued the ‘fresh opinions’ that were offered in relation to her crisis while another found working with a peer counselor to identify the positive aspects of a negative situation to be helpful.”

The study also indicated how scarce these types of treatment facilities were in the U.S. and how little research has been conducted concerning alternative crisis intervention treatment environments — despite their drastically lower costs compared to ERs.

“Patients who were treated in The Living Room were able to successfully manage their emotional crises, which was less expensive, emotionally intensive or as intrusive as being treated in an emergency room,” said Barbara Harris, assistant professor at DePaul’s School of Nursing and another co-author of the study.

“This doesn’t mean that medical treatment is not needed, but sometimes, the emotional distress or crisis that results from the intersection of illness and life situations can be addressed without drastic medical intervention or hospitalization.”

Findings from this qualitative study are being reviewed by other institutions in Illinois as a treatment option for a recovery-based alternative to hospital emergency departments for people in emotional distress.

The conclusions drawn from the study are supported by empirical and anecdotal evidence that suggests that nonclinical care settings, such as The Living Room are perceived as helpful and positive.

“This study is vital to help raise awareness and to inform people suffering that there are other options when it comes to treating mental health,” Shattell said. “We need more facilities like The Living Room to help provide the care and attention people with emotional distress need to fully recover.”

The study appears in the Jan. 7 in the journal Issues in Mental Health Nursing.

Source: DePaul University

 

APA Reference
NewsEditor, P. (2014). For Psychiatric Crises, Alternatives to ERs Have Their Advantages. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 21, 2014, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2014/01/15/helping-ers-better-care-for-people-in-crisis-or-with-a-mental-illness/64580.html