Viewing Different Bodies Helps Brain Understand Disabilities
A new USC study finds evidence that watching television, of all things, can improve compassion and empathy.
Researchers discovered that seeing people with different bodies, such as amputees or those born with residual limbs, causes the brain’s motor network to work hard to process physical differences.
Experts believe the finding supports initiatives to include more individuals with physical differences in mainstream media — such as Sarah Herron, a contestant on ABC’s show “The Bachelor,” who was born with a foreshortened left arm.
“Generally, it’s considered impolite to stare. But what these results suggest is that we need to look. It’s through this visual experience that we’re able to make sense of those different from ourselves,” said Sook-Lei Liew, Ph.D., lead author of a paper that appeared online in the journal NeuroImage.
Liew, Tong Sheng and Lisa Aziz-Zadeh monitored the brains of 19 typically developed individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while showing them a series of video clips.
First they showed a typically developed person picking up objects and then a woman born without complete arms using her residual limbs to perform the same tasks.
The fMRI scans showed that parts of the motor network responsible for picking up objects by hand are activated when simply watching another person performing the task — physical evidence of participants attempting to use their own body representations to represent the people they are watching on screen.
The thing that surprised the researchers was that same part of the motor network was activated to a greater degree when watching residual limbs doing the same activity. Participants’ brains worked overtime to process the use of a type of limb that they did not have.
“Interestingly, we found that individual differences in trait empathy affected the result,” Aziz-Zadeh said. “That is, individuals who scored higher in their ability to empathize with other people showed more activity in motor regions when observing actions made by residual limbs.”
Further, when shown more clips of the woman with a residual limb — clips that lasted minutes instead of seconds—the fMRI scans showed similar motor network activity, which returned to a level comparable to when they were watching typically developed individuals, suggesting that increased visual exposure improved understanding.
“Stigma is one of the main challenges for people with physical differences,” Liew said.
“We need to examine why stigmas exist and what we can do to alleviate them. Learning about disabilities visually is one way that we can begin to map their experiences onto our own brains.”
Nauert PhD, R. (2013). Viewing Different Bodies Helps Brain Understand Disabilities. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 4, 2015, from http://psychcentral.com/news/2013/01/24/viewing-different-bodies-helps-brain-understand-disabilities/50738.html