A recent study finds that people ignore or tune out political information about candidates they oppose.
During the last days of the 2008 Presidential campaign, researchers at Ohio State University monitored a series of physical reactions, such as heart rate and the movement of facial muscles, of people who were watching a variety of actual ads for Republican presidential candidate John McCain and his Democratic rival, Barack Obama.
What the researchers found was that those who had a favorite candidate reacted strongly to ads that featured that person, while they barely responded to ads featuring the rival candidate.
In comparison, people who didn’t favor one candidate over the other showed similar physiological response patterns and intensity to ads for both Obama and McCain.
This suggests that the decided voters weren’t really paying attention to the ads featuring the candidate they opposed even as they watched them, said Zheng Wang, Ph.D., lead author of the study and assistant professor of communication at Ohio State University.
“If people are exposed to information in ads regarding a candidate they oppose, they respond by basically tuning out,” Wang said.
“A lot of research has shown that, behaviorally, we tend to selectively expose ourselves to information that reinforces our existing opinions,” she continued. “But this study further suggests that even when exposed to information, our attention to what is presented is highly selective, as well.”
The study involved 15 college students who came to Wang’s laboratory in October 2008. They were hooked up with electrodes that measured four physiological responses: Heart rate, skin conductance (a way to measure sweating, which is related to how stimulated and alert the person is), and muscle movements around the cheekbone and eyebrows.
According to Wang, previous research has shown that these physiological responses, taken together, indicate emotional responses and attention levels.
While hooked up to the electrodes, each participant watched 12 campaign ads — six for Obama and six for McCain — while their physiological reactions were recorded.
After watching the ads, the students filled out surveys of how positively and negatively they regarded Obama and McCain in general.
The physiological measures used in the study revealed how much the viewers were paying attention and how they were reacting emotionally to the ad content, according to the researchers.
For example, a lower heart rate suggests that the viewer is taking in information and paying more attention to the ad, while a higher heart rate suggests the viewer is not focused on the ads. The muscles in the face also indicate how much effort at paying attention a person is making.
In one analysis of the study, the researchers used what they called a dynamical feedback model to see how the different ad factors interacted with the viewers’ partisan leanings to influence their physiological reactions.
“At any one time, ad viewers’ reactions are affected not just by what they are seeing at that exact moment, but also by what came before in the ad,” Wang said. “The dynamical feedback model puts it all together to see how people react in a real-time, real-world way.”
For supporters of a particular candidate, the feedback model suggests that the positive feelings that viewers have are amplified as they watch an ad for their candidate, Wang said. But for opponents, the feedback effects actually seem to decrease their response over time as they watch the ad — in essence, they tune out, she said.
“When we integrate all of the ad message inputs into this dynamical system of the viewer’s mind, we find the response of supporters is intensified, while the opponents become non-responsive,” she said.
The results also suggest that it isn’t easy to predict how positive ads versus negative ones will affect viewers.
“The ad message is only part of the story because it interacts with how individuals process the ad,” she said. “In addition, one negative ad is very different from another negative ad, in terms of their content dynamics and how people react over time. And a 60-second version of an ad can have quite different effects from a 30-second version of the same ad. How people react to ads is a very complex and dynamic process.”
The study, partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation, was published in the journal Communication Research.
Source: The Ohio State University