A new study advocates a novel technique for weight control — consume to satisfy your stomach, not your brain.
The perspective provides healthy hints:
When the meal was small, people felt hungrier than when the meal was larger. But for the next meal, hunger ratings were equally high, according to Katarina Borer, professor in the University of Michigan School of Kinesiology and principal investigator on the study.
“The stomach or gut knows when we are full, and that has to do with volume and energy contained in food,” she said.
“Our body tracks the amount of food that goes into our mouth and the stomach. Our stomach is the smart guy who knows what’s going on and tells our brain.”
Borer withheld calories through diet, and also had people burn calories through exercise. The study showed that caloric deficit in the form of small meals causes hunger but the reverse is true when we expend calories through exercise after a large meal.
But when she replaced those calories and nutrients intravenously, people still did not feel full after either a small meal or exercise, which suggests again that the volume of food actually passing through the mouth and gut triggers hunger or fullness.
The findings disclaim the widely held position that the hormone leptin acts as a satiety signal in controlling appetites, and that the hormone ghrelin signals hunger, Borer says.
Current thinking is that hormones and other sensors in the body somehow track our energy/caloric deficit or excess, and then ghrelin signals our bodies that we need to eat during an energy deficit and leptin directs that we should stop in response to caloric fill.
Hormones leptin and ghrelin did track energy availability (deficit due to small meals and exercise and excess due to large meals and intravenous nutrients), but did not affect appetite, Borer said.
Borer’s findings certainly do not give license to eat a small volume of calorie-rich food like a pizza while dieting, she stressed. You’d feel hungry sooner than after consuming large volumes of healthy low-energy foods.
The added benefit of low energy but nutrient-rich food is possible weight loss and general good health, she says. Lots of vegetables and lean meat are wiser choices than pizza, she says, though equal volumes of both make us feel full.
“You need to satisfy your stomach but not add a lot of calories,” she said.
Source: University of Michigan