How Does Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work?
How cognitive behavioral therapy works is complex. There are several possible theories about how it works, and clients often have their own views. Perhaps there is no one explanation. But CBT probably works in a number of ways at the same time. Some it shares with other therapies, some are specific to CBT. The following illustrate the ways in which CBT can work.
Learning coping skills
CBT tries to teach people skills for dealing with their problems. Someone with anxiety may learn that avoiding situations helps to fan their fears. Confronting fears in a gradual and manageable way helps give the person faith in their own ability to cope. Someone who is depressed may learn to record their thoughts and look at them more realistically. This helps them to break the downward spiral of their mood. Someone with long-standing problems in relating to other people may learn to check out their assumptions about other people’s motivation, rather than always assuming the worst.
Changing behaviors and beliefs
A new strategy for coping can lead to more lasting changes to basic attitudes and ways of behaving. The anxious client may learn to avoid avoiding things! He or she may also find that anxiety is not as dangerous as they assumed. Someone who’s depressed may come to see themselves as an ordinary member of the human race, rather than inferior and fatally flawed. Even more basically, they may come to have a different attitude to their thoughts – that thoughts are just thoughts, and nothing more.
A new form of relationship
One-to-one CBT brings the client into a kind of relationship they may not have had before. The ‘collaborative’ style means that they are actively involved in changing. The therapist seeks their views and reactions, which then shape the way the therapy progresses. The person may be able to reveal very personal matters, and to feel relieved, because no-one judges them. He or she arrives at decisions in an adult way, as issues are opened up and explained. Each individual is free to make his or her own way, without being directed. Some people will value this experience as the most important aspect of therapy.
Solving life problems
The methods of CBT may be useful because the client solves problems that may have been long-standing and stuck. Someone anxious may have been in a repetitive and boring job, lacking the confidence to change. A depressed person may have felt too inadequate to meet new people and improve their social life. Someone stuck in an unsatisfactory relationship may find new ways of resolving disputes. CBT may teach someone a new approach to dealing with problems that have their basis in an emotional disturbance.
How Can I Find a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapist?
You can find a cognitive-behavioral therapy by visiting the National Association of Cognitive Behavioral Therapists, who have a directory of certified cognitive behavioral therapists.
Can I Learn Some Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Myself?
Since cognitive-behavioral therapy has a highly educational component, much use is made of reading material in individual therapy and this has been expanded into a large self-help literature over recent years. Researchers haven’t paid much attention, so far, to whether these books can be helpful. There is one study of The Feeling Good Handbook, which they found effective for alleviating depression. This suggests that it could be beneficial for other problems, in the same way, although this will depend on the severity of the problem and how long it’s been going on.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 31, 2014, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 30 Jan 2013
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