Communication Addiction Disorder: Concern over Media, Behavior and Effects
More focused research in several areas is needed. First, more needs to be learned
about the actual etiology of the mediated communication syndrome to the extent that it
may truly exist, or whether its characteristics interact with other predispositions. Without
such knowledge it would be prudent to assume that what appears to be Internet
compulsion is masking other problems. Doing so will require conceptualizations beyond
the appropriation of partial symptomatologies from unrelated addictions.
Second, the use of the Internet should be reconsidered and broken down into the
USES of the Internet, setting the stage to learn what specific channels and what specific
activities are being addressed by users. From such a perspective we will better be able to
address whether these uses are achieving functional, neutral, or dysfunctional effects.
Third, careful research should explore the substitutability of apparently
compulsive online behavior as it might actually displace analogous behavior off-line. It
would be highly instructive to know what one does when one’s computer breaks or one’s
therapist helps a client to go off-line. Is there is a concomitant resurgence in barhopping,
pornography buying, face-to-face gossiping, etc.?
Fourth, research should explore the possibility for whom and under what
circumstances online interaction, even at extreme levels, provides a healthy respite from
such chronic issues as filial pressures or loneliness, without which a person would be
even worse off than they would with their recognized usage of Internet facilities. Clinical
and statistical evaluations should be conducted to see whether, once a client no longer
answers “yes” to Internet Addiction diagnostic items, they actually feel better on other
indicators of adjustment, or if they feel worse.
Anderson, K. J. (1999, August). Internet use among college students: Should we
be concerned. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological
Bell, R. A., & Daly, J. A. (1984). The affinity-seeking function of
communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 91-115.
Bell, R. A., & Daly, J. A. (1985). Some communicator correlates of loneliness.
Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 121-142.
Benedikt, C. (1995, June). Tinysex is safe sex. Infobahn Magazine: The
Magazine of Internet Culture. Retrieved January 5, 1997 from the WWW:
Berger C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction
and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human
Communication Research, 2, 99-112.
Berger, C. R., Gardner, R. R., Parks, M. R., Schulman, L., & Miller, G. R. (1976).
Interpersonal epistemology and interpersonal communication. In G. R. Miller (Ed.),
Explorations in interpersonal communication (pp. 149-171). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Berger, C. R., & Jordan, J. M. (1992). Planning sources, planning difficulty, and
verbal fluency. Communication Monographs. 59, 130-149.
Bostrom, R. N., & Harrington, N. G. (1999). An exploratory investigation of
characteristics of compulsive talkers. Communication Education, 48, 73-80.
Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., & Woodall, W. G. (1996). Nonverbal
communication: The unspoken dialogue (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Carnegie, D. (1936). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Simon
Cline, R. J., & Musolf, K. E. (1985). Disclosure as social exchange: Anticipated
length of relationship, sex roles, and disclosure intimacy. Western Journal of Speech
Communication, 49, 43-56.
Cooper, A., Scherer, C. R., Boies, S. C., & Gordon, B. L. (1999). Sexuality on
the Internet: From sexual exploration to pathological expression. Professional
Psychology: Research and Practice, 30 (2); retrieved April 1, 1999 from the WWW:
Cupach, W. R., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1998). Obsessional relational intrusion and
stalking. In B. H. Spitzberg & W. R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of close relationships.
Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Griffiths, M. (1998). Internet addiction: Does it really exist? In J. Gackenbach
(Ed.), Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal
implications (pp. 61- 75). San Diego: Academic Press.
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY:
Hayes, D. P., & Meltzer, L. (1972). Interpersonal judgments based on
talkativeness: I Fact or artifact? Sociometry, 35, 538-561.
Hogan, R., Jones, W., & Cheek, J. (1985). Socioanalytic theory: An alternative to
armadillo psychology. In B. M. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life (pp. 175-198).
New York: McGraw-Hill.
King, S. A. (1996). Is the Internet addictive, or are addicts using the Internet?
Retrieved August 18, 1999 from the WWW: http:www.concentric.net/~Astorm/iad.html
Kraut, R., Lundmark, V., Patterson, M., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., &
Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social
involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1031.
McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication-bound anxiety. Speech
Monographs, 37, 269-277.
McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent
theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4, 78-95.
McCroskey, J. C. (1978) Validity of the PRCA as an index of oral communication
apprehension. Communication Monographs, 43, 192-208.
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1995). Correlates of compulsive
communication: Quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Communication Quarterly,
Mortenson, C. D., Arnston, P. H., & Lustig, M. W. (1977). Measurement of
verbal predispositions: Scale development and application. Human Communication
Research, 3, 146-158.
Parks, M. R., & Floyd, K. (1996). Making friends in cyberspace. Journal of
Communication, 46, 80-97.
Parks, M. R., & Roberts, L. D. (1998). ‘Making MOOsic’” The development of
personal relationships on line and a comparison to their off-line counterparts. Journal of
Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 517-537.
Porter, D. T. (1979). Communication apprehension: Communication’s latest
artifact? In D. Nimmo (Ed.), Communication yearbook 3 (pp. 241-259). New Brunswick,
NJ: Transaction Books.
Prisbell, M. (1988). Dating competence as related to levels of loneliness.
Communication Reports, 1, 54-59.
Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic
frontier. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Roberts, L. D., & Parks, M. R. (1998, April). The social geography of genderswitching
in virtual environments on the Internet. Paper presented at the Brandeis
Conference on Life in Cyberspace, Boston.
Roberts, L. D., Smith, L. M., & Pollack, C. (1996, September). A model of social
interaction via computer-mediated communication in real-time text-based virtual
environments. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Australian Psychological
Society, Sydney, Australia.
Scheerhorn, D., Warisse, J., & McNeilis, K. (1995). Computer-based
telecommunication among an illness-related community. Health Communication, 7, 301-
Snyder, M. R. (1974). Self-monitoring of expressive behavior. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 526-573.
Spitzberg, B. H. (1998). Sexual coercion in courtship relations. In B. H. Spitzberg
& W. R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of close relationships. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Spitzberg, B. H., & Canary, D. J. (1985). Loneliness and relationally competent
communication. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 387-402.
Turner, R. E., Edgley, C., & Olmstead, G. (1975). Information control in
conversations: Honesty is not always the best policy. Kansas Journal of Speech, 11, 69-
Walther, J. B., Anderson, J. F., & Park, D. (1994). Interpersonal effects in
computer-mediated interaction: A meta-analysis of social and anti-social communication.
Communication Research, 21, 460-487.
Walther, J. B., & Boyd, S. (2002). Attraction to computer-mediated social support.
In C. A. Lin & D. Atkin (Eds.), Communication technology and society: Audience
adoption and uses (pp 153-188). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Yelsma, P. (1995). Couples’ affective orientations and their verbal abusiveness.
Communication Quarterly, 43, 100-114.
Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of Internet
addiction and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Young, K. S. (1999). What is cybsersexual addiction? Retrieved August 18, 1999
from the WWW: http://netaddiction.com/cybersexual_addiction.htm
Psych Central. (2016). Communication Addiction Disorder: Concern over Media, Behavior and Effects. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 30, 2016, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/communication-addiction-disorder-concern-over-media-behavior-and-effects/