Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation
A theory originally posited in the mid-20th century; attributed all behavioral motivation to the pleasure of meeting a biological need. Drive-reduction theory fell out of favor because it failed to explain situations where people choose a tension-producing over a tension-reducing action — in extreme sports, for example.
Example: Hunger is an unpleasant sensation which reminds us to eat food, an activity central to our survival.
Grinnell, R. (2008). Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation. Psych Central. Retrieved on February 10, 2016, from http://psychcentral.com/encyclopedia/drive-reduction-theory-of-motivation/