The belief that events in one’s life, whether good or bad, are caused by controllable factors such as one’s attitude, preparation, and effort.
Example: When the boy failed a test, he acknowledged that he hadn’t studied enough and didn’t understand a few of its key questions. He resolved to meet with his teacher for advice on ways to improve next time.
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 24 Jan 2009