Archives for 2008

Experimenter Bias

Errors in a research study due to the predisposed notions or beliefs of the experimenter. Example: The results of the study are likely skewed since the researchers knew which...
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Experimental Group

The group of participants who receive the drug or treatment being studied in a clinical experiment, as opposed to the control group. Example: The experimental group in a clinical...
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Experiment

Testing validity (such as that of a hypothesis, drug, or medical procedure) under controlled conditions. Example: The researchers set up an experiment in which they gave the new drug...
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Existential Therapy

A psychotherapeutic approach whose aim is to enable patients to overcome feelings of meaninglessness by exploring their individual worldviews, accepting their human limitations, and creating a personal system of...
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Empirical Validity

Statistical evidence that a diagnostic instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. Example: SAT performance has been shown to correlate fairly well with one’s college GPA; therefore, the...
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Emotion

Strong subjective states or experiences typically accompanied by physiological changes in the body; feelings. Example: Stressful feelings cause measurable physiological responses, such as erratic heart rate and heightened galvanic...
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Electroencephalography (EEG)

The practice of placing electrodes on a subject’s scalp in order to non-invasively measure the electrical activity of the brain. This process is used to determine if someone has...
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

Formerly known as electroshock therapy, ECT is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which anaesthetized patients receive electrically induced seizures through the use of electrodes placed on the skull. ECT...
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Ego

One of the three main constructs in Freud’s model of the psyche, the ego represents reason and common sense, and mediates between the chaotic instincts of the id and...
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