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CONDITIONED REFLEXES: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

By Ivan P. Pavlov (1927)
Translated by G. V. Anrep (1927)

Posted September 2001

 

[Editor's note: Pavlov used both square and round brackets in his texts. These have been preserved but can lead to confusions as to which insertions are the author's and which are the editor's. Page numbers, reference numbers, and the occasional "sic" have been inserted in square brackets by the Classics editor. All other insertions (e.g., on p. 31) are by Pavlov. -cdg-]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following bibliography comprises all the published researches upon the physiology of conditioned reflexes performed in my own laboratories in Petrograd. The first paper giving a more or less systematic description of "natural" conditioned reflexes -- then called "psychic reflexes" -- was published by Dr. Wolfson in the form of a thesis entitled Observations upon Salivary Secretion (Petrograd, 1899). The term "conditioned reflex" was first used in print by Dr. Tolochinov, who completed his experiments in 1901 and communicated the results at the Congress of Natural Sciences in Helsingfors in 1903.

The bibliography is divided into twenty-three sections. This division has been made for the convenience of those who wish to obtain a preliminary acquaintance with one or another aspect of the subject. The titles of papers quoted in more than one section are given in full in that section to which their main part belongs. Since the papers referred to in one section treat also of other aspects, a detailed knowledge can be achieved only by reading the main bulk of the literature. In each section the literature is set down in chronological order. Many of the experiments quoted in these lectures were taken from researches which have only recently been completed and are not yet published, or which are still in progress. These could not, therefore, be included in the bibliography.

I. GENERAL

(1) Pavlov, I. P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity (behaviour) of animals." State publication, 3rd edition, 1925. Articles, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, B, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 23, 28, 29,31,33, 35.

II. METHODS

(1) Pavlov, I. P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Article, No. 12.

(2) Hanike, E. A. "The construction of Round-proof chambers." Bulletin of the Scientific Institute of Lesgaft, vol. v. 1922. [p. 413]

(3) Hanike, E.A. "Upon the production of pure tones." Archive of Biological Sciences, vol. xxiii. Nos. 4-5, 1924.

(4) Podkopaev, N.A. "The technical methods employed in the study of conditioned reflexes." Petrograd, 1926.

III. EXTERNAL INHIBITION

(1) Babkin, B.P. See section IVA (3) chapter vii.

(2) Vassiliev, P.N. "The action of extraneous stimuli upon established conditioned reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906.

(3) Mishtovt, G.V. "Development of inhibition of an artificial conditioned reflex (auditory) by means of different stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1907; Preliminary communication in the Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 74, 1907.

(4) Perelzweig, I.J. See section IVa (4) chapter iv.

(5) Kasherininova, N.A. See section X (1).

(6) Nikiforovsky, P.M. "An interesting form or dis-inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 76, 1909.

(7) Bilina, A.S. "The simple inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910.

(8) Egorov, J.E. "The influence of different alimentary conditioned reflexes one upon another." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911.

(9) Savich, A.A. "Further contributions to the study of the influence of conditioned reflexes one upon another." Thesis, Petrograd, 1913.

(10) Rosova, L.V. "Interaction between different forms of external inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1914.

(11) Foursikov, D.S. "Effect of external inhibition upon the development of differentiation and of a conditioned inhibitor." Russian Journal of Physiology, vol, iv. 1922.

(12) Foursikov, D. S. "Effect of the investigatory reaction upon the development of a conditioned inhibitor and of differentiation." Russian Journal of Physiology, vol. iv. 1922.
 

 

IV. INTERNAL INHIBITION

(a) Extinction

(1) Tolochinov, I.E. "Contributions à l'étude de la physiologie et de la, psychologie des glandes salivaires." Forhändlingar vid Nordiska Naturforskare och Läkaremötet. Helsingfors, 1903.

(2) Boldirev, P.N. "The development of artificial conditioned reflexes and their properties." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, 1905-1906. [p. 414]

(3) Babkin, B.P. "A systematic investigation of the higher nervous (psychic) functions in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1904.

(4) Perelzweig, I.J. "Contributions to the study of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1907.

(5) Zeliony, C. P. See section VIII (1).

(6) Kasherininova, N.A. See X (1) chapter 8.

(7) Eliason, M.M. "Restoration of extinguished reflexes by the use of unconditioned stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 74, 1907.

(8) Zavadsky, I.V. See IVc (2).

(9) Volborth, G.V. See XX (4).

(10) Corn, E.L. See IVB (5).

(11) Potehin, S.I. "Contributions to the physiology of internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrogad, 1911; Preliminary communication, Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 78, 1911.

(12) Degtiareva, V.A. SeeIVD (7).

(13) Kogan, B.A. See V (4).

(14) Chebotareva, O.V. See IVD (5).

(15) Ten-Gate, J.J. "Contributions to the study of irradiation and concentration of extinctive inhibition." Bulletin of the Institute of Lesgaft, vol. 3, 1921.

(16) Podkopaev, N.A. See V (11) and (12).

(17) Frolov, G.P., and Vindelband, 0.A. "A special case of extinction of an artificial conditioned reflex." Commun. at 38th meeting of Petrograd Physiol. Soc., 1923.

(18) Popov, N.A. "Extinction of the investigatory reflex in the dog." Russian Jour. Physiol., vol, iii. 1923.

(19) Neitz, E.A. "Mutual interaction of conditioned reflexes." Bulletin of Military Med. Acad., 1908; Preliminary Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 74, 1907.

(20) Pimenov, P.P. See IVE (7) chapter 2.

(21) Makovsky, I.X. See XII (4).

(22) Valkov, A.V. "A special case of irradiation of extinctive inhibition." Commun. at 6Oth meeting of Petrograd Physiol. Sec., 1924.

(23) Popov, N.A. "Extinction of the investigatory reflex in the dog." Russian Jour. Physiol., vol. iii. 1923.

(24) Frolov, G.P., and Windelband, O.A. " A special case of extinction of an artificial conditioned reflex." Archive of Biological Sciences, vol. xxv. Nos. 4 and 5, 1926. [p. 415]

(b) Differentiation

(1) Zeliony, G.P. "Contribution to the problem of the reaction of dogs to auditory stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1907; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906.

(2) Beliakov, V.V. "Contributions to the physiology of differentiation of external stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911.

(3) Snegirev, C.V. "Contributions to the study of conditioned reflexes: Specialization of auditory conditioned reflexes in the dog." Clinical Monographs of Practical Medicine, Petrograd, 1911.

(4) Potehin, S.I. See IVA (11).

(5) Corn, E.L. "Contributions to the physiology of internal inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912; Preliminary Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 79, 1912.

(6) Friedman, S.S. "Further contributions to the physiology of differentiation of external stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1913.

(7) Ponizovsky, N.P. "Inhibitory after-effect of differential, and of conditioned inhibition upon heterogeneous conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912.

(8) Koupalov, P.S. "Initial generalization and subsequent specialization of conditioned reflexes." Archive of Biological Sciences, vol. xix. No. 1, 1915.

(9) Goubergritz, M.M. "An improved method of developing differentiation of external stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1917.

(10) Foursikov, D.S. "Differentiation of interrupted auditory stimuli by the dog." Bulletin of the Institute of Lesgaft, vol. ii. 1920.

(11) Anrep, C.V. "Pitch discrimination in the dog." Jour. Physiol. liii. 1920.

(12) Shenger-Krestovnikova, N.R· "Contributions to the physiology of differentiation of visual stimuli, and determination of limit of differentiation by the visual analyser of the dog." Bulletin of Institute of Lesgaft, vol. iii. 1921.

(13) Foursikov, D.X. See III (11).

(14) Foursikov, D.S. SeeIII (12).

(15) Frolov, C.P. "Differentiation of conditioned trace-stimuli and of trace-inhibitors," Russian. Jour. of Physiol., vol. vi. Nos. 4-6, 1924.

(16) Valkov, A.V. "The ultimate fate of the internal inhibition of differentiation." Bulletin of Petrograd Agricultural Institute, vol. i. 1924 (abstract in Physiol. Abstracts, vol. 8, 1924).

(17) Rosenthal, I.S. "Upon the specialization of conditioned reflexes." Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xxiii. Nos. 4-5, 1924.

(18) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Article, No. 16. [p. 416]

(19) Rosenthal, I.C. "The mutual interactions of the excitatory and inhibitory processes (a new type of differentiation of tactile conditioned stimuli)." Collected Papers of the Physiol. Lab. of I. P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1926.

(c) Delayed Reflexes

(1) Potehin, S.I. See IVA(11).

(2) Zavadsky, I.V. "Inhibition and dis-inhibition of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

(3) Kreps, E.M. "The effect of prolongation of delay upon the excitability of the cortex." Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xxv. Nos. 4-5, 1926.

(d) Conditioned Inhibition

(1) Perelzweig, I.J. See IVa (4) chapter 8.

(2) Krjishkovsky, K.N. "A contribution to the problem of conditioned inhibition." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 76, 1909.

(3) Nikolaev, P.N. "A contribution to the problem of conditioned inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910.

(4) Leporsky, N.I. "A contribution to the problem of conditioned inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911.

(5) Chebotareva, 0.M. "Further contributions to the physiology of conditioned inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912; Preliminary Commun. Russian Med. Sec., vol. 80, 1913.

(6) Ponizovsky, N.P. See IVA(7).

(7) Degtiareva, V.A. "Contributions to the physiology of internal inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1914.

(8) Pavlova, A.M. "Contributions to the physiology of conditioned inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1915.

(9) Anrep, G.V. "Irradiation of conditioned inhibition." Russian, Jour. Physiol., vol, i. Nos. 1-2, 1917.

(10) Foursikov, D. S. SeeIII(11).

(11) Foursikov, D. S. SeeIII(12).

(12) Anrep, G.V. "Irradiation of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Royal Soc., vol. B. 94, 1923.

(e) Trace Reflexes

(1) Pimenov, P.P. "A special type of conditioned trace reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1907.

(2) Grossman, F.S· "Contributions to the physiology of conditioned trace reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1909; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910. [p. 417]

(3) Dobrovolsky, V.M. "Alimentary trace reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd,

1911.

(4) Pavlova, V.I. "Conditioned trace reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 80, 1913.

(5) Belitz, M.F. "Conditioned trace reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1917.

(6) Frolov, G.P. See IVB (15).

(7) Frolov, G.P. "Transformation of conditioned trace stimuli and

trace conditioned inhibitors into non-trace stimuli." Collected

Papers of Physiol. Lab. of I. P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1926.

(f) Sleep as Internal Inhibition

(1) Solomonov, O.S., and Shishlo, A.A. "Conditioned reflexes and sleep." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in. Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(2) Solomonov, O.S. "Thermal and tactile conditioned reflexes leading to sleep." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910.

(3) Rojansky, N.A. "Contributions to the physiology of sleep." Thesis, Petrograd, 1913; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 79, 1912.

(4) Rosenthal, I.S. "Transition of internal inhibition into sleep in extinction of the investigatory reflex." Communication Petrograd Physiol. Soc., May, 1923.

(5) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Articles, 14, 24, 30.

(6) Bierman, B.N. " Experimental sleep." State Publication, 1925.

V. IRRADIATION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXCITATION

AND INHIBITION

(1) Krasnogorsky, N.I. "Studies upon central inhibition and upon the localization of the tactile and motor analysers in the cortex of the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911. (2) Ponizovsky, N.P. See IVB (7).

(3) Petrova, M.K. "Investigations upon irradiation of excitation and

inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1914; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 80, 1913.

(4) Kogan, B.A. "Irradiation and concentration of extinctive inhibition." Thesis, Petrograd, 1914.

(5) Manouilov, T.M. "Contribution to the physiology of inhibition and excitation." Thesis, Petrograd, 1917.

(6) Anrep. G.V. "Interaction between two different types of internal inhibition." Archive of Biol. Sciences, xx. No. 4, 1917.

(7) Anrep. G.V. "A static state of irradiation of excitation." Archive of Biol. Sciences, xx. No. 4, 1917. [p. 418]

(8) Anrep, G.V. "Irradiation of conditioned inhibition." Russian Jour. Physiol. vol. i. Nos. 1-2, 1917.

(9) Ten-Cate, J.J. See IVA (15).

(10) Anrep, G.V. "Irradiation of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Royal Soc. vol. B. 93, 1923.

(11) Foursikov, D.S. "A static state of irradiation of inhibition." Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xxiii. Nos. 1-3, 1923; Prelim.

Commun. Russian Jour. Physiol. vol. iv. 1922.

(12) Siriatsky, V.M. "A method for disclosure of residual inhibition after concentration of the inhibitory process." Commun. at 48th meeting of Petrograd Physiol. Soc., 1923.

(13) Rosenthal, I.S. "A static state of irradiation of excitation." Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xxiii. Nos. 1-3, 1923.

(14) Kreps, E.M. "The after-effect of differentiated stimuli." Commun. at 36th meeting of Petrograd Physiol Soc., 1923.

(15) Valkov, A.V. See IVA (22).

(16) Podkopaev, N.A. "The mobility of the inhibitory process." Collected Papers of Physiol. Lab. of I.P. Pavlov, vol. vii. No. 1, 1924 (abstract in Physiol. Abstracts, vol. viii. 1924).

(17) Podkopaev, N.A. "Determination of the exact moment at which irradiation of inhibition begins." I.P. Pavlov Jubilee Volume, 1924 (abstract in Physiol. Abstracts, vol. viii. 1924).

(18) Siriatsky, V.N. "The cerebral cortex as a mosaic." Commun. at 2nd Congress of Psycho-neurologists in Petrograd, January, 1924.

(19) Archangelsky, V.M. "Comparative intensities of different types of internal inhibition." Collected Papers of Physiol. Lab. of I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. No. 1, 1924.

(20) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Articles, 14, 19, 22, 32.

(21) Ivanov-Smolensky, A.G. "Irradiation of extinctive inhibition in the acoustic analyser of the dog." Collected Papers of the Physiol. Lab. of I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1925; also Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(22) Bikov, K.M. "Mutual interaction of excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex." Commun. at the 58th meeting of Petrograd Physiol. Soc., January, 1925.

(23) Kreps, E.M. "Positive induction and irradiation of inhibition in the cortex." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

VI. OLFACTORY ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Zavadsky, I.V. "Gyrus pyriformis in its relation to the sense of smell in the dog." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 76, 1909; Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xv. Nos. 3-5, 1910. [p. 419]

VII. VISUAL ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Orbeli, L.A. "Visual conditioned reflexes in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 74, 1907.

(2) Orbeli, L.A. "The question of discrimination of colour in the dog."
Problems of Medical Science, vol. i. 1913.

(3) Frolov, G.P. "Reactions of the central nervous system to changes in intensity of illumination." Proc. Petrograd Soc. for Natural Sciences, vol. 69, No. 1, 1918.

VIII. ACOUSTIC ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Zeliony, G.P. "The reactions of the dog to auditory stimuli." Thesis, Petrograd, 1907; Prelim. Commun. Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906.

(2) Zeliony, G.P. "A conditioned reflex to an interruption of a sound." Proc. of Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 74, 1907; also Karkov Med. Jour., 1908.

(3) Eliason, M.M. "Investigation upon the acoustic functions of the dog under normal conditions and after bilateral partial extirpation of the auditory area." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908.

(4) Zeliony, G.P. " Über der Reaktion der Katze auf Tonreiz." Zentralblatt für Physiologie, Bd. xxiii. 1909. (5) Bourmakin, V.A. "Generalization of conditioned auditory reflexes in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1909.

(6) Zeliony, G.P. "Upon the ability of the dog to discriminate auditory stimuli applied in succession, according to different numbers of their repetition." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(7) Babkin, B.P. "Contributions to the study of the acoustic analyser." Proc. Russian. Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(8) Ousievich, M.A. "Further contributions to the study of the acoustic analyser." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 78, 1911.

(9) Babkin, B.P. "The so-called psychic deafness as analysed by the objective method." Roussky Vrach, No. 51, 1911.

(10) Babkin, B.P. "Further studies upon the normal and the injured acoustic analyser in the dog." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 78, 1911.

(11) Anrep, G.V. "Pitch discrimination in the dog." Jour. Physiol. vol. 53, 1920.

(12) Andréev, A.A. "The resonance theory of Helmholtz in the light of new observations upon the function of the peripheral end of the acoustic analyser in the dog." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925. [p. 420]

(13) Ivanov-Smolensky, A.C. "Irradiation of extinctive inhibition in the acoustic analyser of the dog." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925; also Collected Papers of Physiol. Lab. of I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1926.

IX. THERMAL ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Voskoboinikova-Granstrem, E.E. "Temperature of 50°C. as a new artificial conditioned stimulus." Proc. Russian Med. Soc., vol. 73, 1906.

(2) Babkin, B.P. "Contributions to the physiology of the frontal lobes of the cortex in the dog." Bulletin Milit. Med. Acad., 1909.

(3) Shishlo, A.A. "Thermal centres in the cortex of the hemispheres; sleep as a reflex." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910; Prelim. Commun. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(4) Solomonov, O.S. "Thermal conditioned stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(5) Solomonov, O.S. "Thermal conditioned reflexes and the reflex of sleep in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910.

(6) Vasiliev, P.N. "Differentiation of thermal stimuli by the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912.

X. TACTILE ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Kasherininova, N.A. "Contributions to the study of salivary conditioned reflexes in response to tactile stimuli in the dog. Thesis, Petrograd, 1908; Prelim. Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906.

(1) Kasherininova, N.A. "Tactile stimuli as conditioned salivary stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, 73, 1926.

(3) Krasnogorsky, N.I. See V (1).

(4) Archangelsky, V.M. "Peculiarities of tactile conditioned reflexes in the case of partial destruction of the cutaneous analyser." Proc. Russian, Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 80, 1913.

(5) Archangelsky, V.M. "Contributions to the physiology of the cutaneous analyser." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol. xxii. No. 1, 1922.

XI. THE MOTOR ANALYSER (normal conditions)

(1) Krasnogorsky, N.I. See V(1).

(2) Archangelsky, V.M. "Contributions to the physiology of the motor analyser." Archive of Biol. Sciences, vol. xxii. No. 1, 1922. [p. 421]

XII. THE EFFECTS UPON CONDITIONED REFLEXES OF EXTIRPATION OF

DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

1) Tihomirov, N.P. " An investigation of the functions of the hemispheres in the dog by an objective method." Thesis, Petrograd, 1906.

2) Toropov, N.K. "Visual conditioned reflexes in the dog after extirpation of the occipital lobes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908; Prelim. Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

3) Orbeli, L.A. "Contributions to the question of localization of conditioned reflexes in the central nervous system." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

4) Makovsky, I.S. "Auditory reflexes after extirpation of the temporal lobes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908; Preliminary Communication, Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

5) Eliason, M.M. See VIII(3).

6) Sasonova, A. "Matériaux pour a servir à l'étude des réflexes conditionées." Thesis, Lausanne, 1909.

(7) Babkin, B.P. See IX(2).

(8) Krijanovsky, I.I. "Acoustic conditioned reflexes after extirpation of the temporal lobes in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1909.

(9) Demeedov, V.A. "Conditioned reflexes after extirpation of the anterior halves of the hemispheres in the dog." Thesis, Petrograd, 1909.

(10) Satournov, N. M. "Further contributions to the study of conditioned salivary reflexes in a dog with the anterior halves of the hemispheres removed." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911.

(11) Kourdrin, A.N. "Conditioned reflexes in the dog after extirpation of the posterior halves of the hemispheres." Thesis, Petrograd, 1911.

(12) Kouraev, S.P. "Observations at a remote post-operative stage upon a dog with damaged anterior lobes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912.

(13) Babkin, B.P. "The fundamental characteristics of the functions of the acoustic analyser in a dog after removal of the posterior halves of the hemispheres." Proc. of Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 79, 1912. 14) Zeliony, G.P. "Observations upon dogs after complete removal of the cerebral cortex." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 79, 1912; also a second commun. in same volume.

(15) Archangelsky, V.M. See X(3).

(16) Rosenkov, I.P. "Contributions to the question of correlation of excitation end inhibition in a dog after homolateral extirpation [p. 422] of gyri coronarius and ectosylvius sin." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol. xxiii. Nos. 4-5, 1924.

(17) Rosenkov, I.P. "Contributions to the question of correlation of excitation and inhibition in a dog after bilateral extirpation of gyri coronarius and ectosylvius." Collected Papers of Laboratories of I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1925.

(18) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Articles, 6, 15, 18.

(19) Foursikov, D.S. "The effect of extirpation of the cortex of one hemisphere in the dog." Russian Jour. Physiol. viii. 1-2, 1925.

(20) Foursikov, D.S., and Eurman, M.N. " The effect of extirpation of the cortex of one hemisphere." Russian Jour. Physiol. viii. 1-2, 1925.

(21) Foursikov, D.S. "The effect of extirpation of the cortex of one hemisphere (third communication). Generalization and the development of conditioned reflexes to tactile stimuli." Russian Jour. Physiol. viii. 5-8, 1925.

(22) Foursikov, D.S., and Eurmnan, M.N. "Conditioned reflexes in dogs after removal of one hemisphere." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol, xxv. Nos. 4-6, 1926.

XIII. THE SYNTHESIZING ACTIVITY

(1) Perelzweig, I.J. See IVA (4).

(2) Zeliony, G.P. "A special type of conditioned reflexes." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol. xiv. No. 5, 1909.

(3) Zeliony, G.P. "Analysis of complex conditioned stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(4) Nikolaev, P.N. "Analysis of complex conditioned reflexes." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol. xvi. No. 5, 1911.

(5) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Article, 8.

(6) Stroganov, V.V. "Development of a conditioned reflex to, and differentiation of, compound stimuli." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(7) Bikov, K.M. "The properties of different components of compound stimuli." Collected Papers of Physiol. Laboratories of I.P. Pavlov, vol, i. Nos. 2-3, 1926.

XIV. THE STRENGTH OF CONDITIONED STIMULI

(1) Palladin, A.V. "Development of artificial conditioned reflex to a sum of two stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906. [p. 423]

(2) Tihomirov, N.P. "The intensity of stimulus as an independent conditioned stimulus." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(3) Babkin, B.P. "Contributions to the problem of the relative strengths of conditioned stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 78, 1911.

XV. INDUCTION

(1) Foursikov, D.S. "Interrelations between excitation and inhibition." Collected Papers of Physiol. Labs. of I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. No. 1, 1924; Prelim. Commun. Russian Jour. Physiol., vol. iii. 1-5, 1921, and vol, iv. 1922.

(2) Foursikov, D.S. "Mutual induction in the cerebral cortex." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol, xxiii. 1-3, 1923 (abstract in Physiol. Abstracts, vol. 8, 1923.)

(3) Kalmikov, M.P. "The positive phase of mutual induction as observed in one and the same group of nervous elements of the cortex." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I. P. Pavlov, vol. i. 2-3, 1926.

(4) Stroganov, V.V. " The positive and negative phase of mutual induction in the hemispheres of the dog." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. 2-3, 1926.

(5) Kreps, E.M. See V (23).

XVI. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER OF ANIMALS

(1) Besbokaia, M.J. "Contributions to the physiology of conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1913.

(2) Frolov, G.P. "The passive defence reflex and its influence upon conditioned relieves." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(3) Kreps, E.M. "An attempt to establish a classification of experimental animals according to types." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. 1924.

XVII. TIME AS A CONDITIONED STIMULUS

(1) Feokritova, J.P. "Time as a conditioned stimulus to salivary secretion." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912.

(2) Stoukova, M. M. "Further contributions to the study of the significance of time as it conditioned stimulus." Thesis, Petrograd, 1914.

(3) Deriabin, V.S. "Further contributions to the study of the significance of time as a conditioned stimulus." Thesis, Petrograd, 1916. [p. 424]

(4) Frolov, G.P. "The physiology of the so-called sense of time." Commun. at 2nd Congress of Psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, January, 1924.

XVIII. PHARMACOLOGY OF CONDITIONED REFLEXES

(1) Zavadsky, I.V. "An application of the method of conditioned reflexes to pharmacology." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in. Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

(2) Nikiforoasky, M.P. "Pharmacological methods in application to conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910.

(3) Potehin, S.I. "The pharmacology of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 78, 1911.

(4) Krilov, V.A. "Development of conditioned reflexes to stimuli acting through the blood (automatic stimuli)." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(5) Podkopaev, N.A. "Development of a conditioned reflex to an automatic (direct) stimulus." Collected Papers of Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. 2-3, 1926 (abstract, Zentralblatt für die gesammte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Bd. xxxix. 1925).

XIX. BILATERAL SYNERCETIC ACTIVITY OF THE HEMISPHERES

(1) Anrep, G.V. See V(7)

(2) Anrep, G.V. See V(8)

(3) Anrep, G.V. See V(10).

(4) Podkopaev, N.A., and Grigorovich, L.S. "The development of symmetrical positive and negative reflexes." Vrashebnoe Delo, Nos. 1-2, 3-4, 1924.

(5) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity in animals." Article, 34.

(6) Bikov, K.M. "Contributions to the question of the symmetrical reproduction of function of the hemispheres." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(7) Bikov, K.M. and Speransky, A.D. "Observations upon dogs after section of the corpus callosum." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. of I.P. Pavlov, vol, i. No. 1, 1924 (abstract in Zentralblatt fur die gesammte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Bd. xxxix. 1925).

XX. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALIMENTARY CENTRE

(1) Pimenov, B.P. "Development of conditioned reflexes in the case of application of the stimulus before or after the administration of the unconditioned stimulus." Proc. Russian Med. Xoc. in Petrograd, vol. 73, 1906. [p. 425]

(2) Boldirev, V.N. "Conditioned reflexes and the experimental modification of their intensity." Karkov Med. Jour., 1917.

(3) Hasen, S.B. "Relative magnitudes of conditioned and unconditioned salivary reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1908.

(4) Volborth, G.V. "Contributions to the physiology of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 75, 1908.

(5) Perelzweig, I.J. See IVA (4).

(6) Krestovnikov, A.N. "An important stipulation in the development of conditioned reflexes." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 80, 1913.

(7) Krestovnikov, A.N. "An important stipulation in the development of conditioned reflexes." Bulletin of the Institute of Lesgaft, vol. 3, 1921.

(8) Frolov, G.P. "The influence of abrupt changes in the composition of the food upon some aspects of the higher nervous activity in animals." Archive of Biol. Sciences, xxi. 3-5, 1922.

(9) Rosenthal, I.S. See IVF (4).

(10)Popov, N.A. See IVA (23).

(11) Poursikov, D.S. "Water as a stimulus." Russian Jour. Physiol., vol. 3, Nos. 1-5, 1921; also Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

XXI. THE INVESTIOATORY REFLEX

(1) Foursikov, D.S. See 111(12).

(2) Rasenkov, I.P. See XII (17).

(3) Chechoulin, S.I. "New observations upon extinction of the investigatory reflex." Archive Biol. Sciences, xxiii. 3-5, 1923.

XXII. THE HIGHER NERVOUS ACTIVITY (CONDITIONED REFLEXES) IN
SOME SPECIAL CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

(1) Kruishkovsky, N. "Die Veranderungen in der Function der oberen Abschnitte des Nervensystems bei der Hundin wahrend der Brunst." Zentralblatt fur Physiologie, Bd. xxiv. No. 11, 1909.

(2) Shenger-Krestovnikova, N.R. See IVB (11).

(3) Foursikov, D.S. "The effect of pregnancy upon conditioned reflexes." Archive Biol. Sciences, xxi. Nos. 3-5, 1922.

(4) Rosenthal, I.S. "The effect of pregnancy upon conditioned reflexes." Russian. Jour. Physiol., vol. v. 1922.

(5) Rosenthal, I.S. "The effect of inanition upon conditioned reflexes." Archive Biol. Sciences, xxi. Nos. 3-5, 1922.

(6) Kreps, E.M. "On the influence of heat in a bitch upon its higher nervous activity." Physiol. Abstracts, vol. 5, 1923. [p. 426]

(7) Andrkev, L.A. "Observations upon the functions of the senile central nervous system." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. No. 1, 1924.

(2) Rasenkov, I.P. "Modifications of the excitatory process in the cortex under some complex conditions." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. No. 1, 1924.

(9) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Articles, 25 and 36.

(10) Prorokov, I.P. "A peculiar motor reaction in the dog and its suppression." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1925.

(11) Petrova, M.K. "Pathological deviations of the inhibitory and excitatory process in a case of their clashing." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1925.

(12) Petrova, M.K. "The combatting of sleep: the mutual counterbalancing of the excitatory and inhibitory processes." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(13) Valkov, A.V. "Observations on the higher nervous activity in thyroidectomized puppies." Pavlov Jubilee Vol., 1925.

(14) Podkopaev, N.A. "A peculiar motor reaction in the dog in conjunction with a development of inhibition in the cortex." Collected Papers, Physiol. Labs. I.P. Pavlov, vol. i. Nos. 2-3, 1925.

(15) Petrova, M.K. "The therapy of experimental neuroses in dogs." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol. xxv. Nos. 1-3, 1925.

(16) Siriatsky, V.V. "Pathological deviations in the activity of the central nervous system in the case of clashing of excitation and inhibition." Russian Jour. Physiol., vol. viii. Nos. 3-4, 1925.

XXIII. PAPERS NOT INCLUDED LN THE PRECEDING SECTIONS

(1) Parfenov, O. "A special case of the activity of salivary glands in the dog." Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, 73, 1906.

(2) Volborth, G.V. "Inhibitory conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912; Prelim. Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Sec. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(3) Zitovich, I.S. "The origin of the natural conditioned reflexes." Thesis, Petrograd, 1910; Prelim. Commun. Proc. Russian, Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 77, 1910.

(4) Erofeeva, M.N. "Electrical stimulation of the skin of the dog as a conditioned salivary stimulus." Thesis, Petrograd, 1912; Prelim. Commun. Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 79, 1912. [p. 427]

(5) Eroféeva, M.N. "Contribution to the physiology of conditioned reflexes to injurious stimuli." Proc. Russian Med. Soc. in Petrograd, vol. 80, 1913.

(6) Eroféeva, M.N. "Further observations upon conditioned reflexes to nocuous stimuli." Bulletin of Institute of Lesgaft, vol. iii. 1921.

(7) Foursikov, D.S. "Conditioned chain reflexes and the pathology of the higher nervous activity." Commun. to 2nd Congress of Psycho-neurologists in Petrograd, January, 1924; Prelim. Commun. Russian Jour. Physiol., vol. iv. 1922.

(8) Pavlov, I.P. "Twenty years of objective study of the higher nervous activity of animals." Articles, 27 and 28.

(9) Koupalov, P.S. "Periodical fluctuations in the rate of conditioned salivary secretion." Archive Biol. Sciences, vol, xxv. No. 45, 1926.